13.The town of Stavanger， Norway， was quiet and peaceful until the early 1960‘s， when Stavanger became Norway‘s center for offshore oil exploration. Between then and now， violent crime and vandalism in Stavanger have greatly increased. Cearly， these social problems are among the results of Stavanger‘s oil boom. Which of the following ， if it occurred between the early 1960‘s and now， give the strongest support to the argument above？
（A） The people of Stavanger rarely regret that their town was chosen to be Norway‘s center for offshore oil exploration.
（B） Norwegian sociologists expressed grave concern about the increase in violent crime and vandalism in stavanger.
（C） Violent crime and vandalism have remained low in Norwegian towns that had no oil boom.
（D） Nonviolent crime， drug addiction， and divorce in Stavanger increased approximately as much as violent crime and vandalism did.
（E） The oil boom necessitated the building of wider roads for the increased traffic in Stavanger.
14.In the aftermath of a worldwide stock-market crash， Country T claimed that the severity of the stock-market crash it experienced resulted from the accelerated process of denationalization many of its industries underwent shortly before the crash.
Which of the following， if it could be carried out， would be most useful in an evaluation of Country T‘s assessment of the causes of the severity of its stock-market crash？
（A） Calculating the average loss experienced by individual traders in Country T during the crash
（B） Using economic theory to predict the most likely date of the next crash in Country T
（C） Comparing the total number of shares sold during the worst days of the crash in Country T to the total number of shares sold in Country T just prior to the crash.
（D） Comparing the severity of the crash in Country T to the severity of the crash in countries otherwise economically similar to Country T that have not experienced recent denationalization
（E） Comparing the long-term effects of the crash on the purchasing power of the currency of Country T to the immediate， more severe short-term effects of the crash on the purchasing power of the currency of Country T.
15.In the 1960‘s . long-term studies of primate behavior often used as subjects tamarins， small monkeys that were thought ideal because they require only small cages， bread frequently， and grow quickly. Field studies were not used because they were costly and difficult. Tamarins were kept caged in male-female pairs， because otherwise， serious fights erupted between unrelated females. On the basis of the fact that breeding occurred， tamatins were viewed as monogamous.
The view taken by the researchers concerning the monogamy of tamarins depended on a questionable assumption.Which of the following could have served as that assumption？
（A） The suppression of fighting between related females serves to protect their common genetic inheritance.
（B） Adult male tamatins contribute to the care of tamarin infants.
（C） The social system of tamarins requires monogamous pairing.
（D） Male tamarin monkeys do not display aggressive behavior in the wild.
（E） The way the tamarins were kept in cages did not affect their mating behavior.
16. Twenty percent of all energy consumed in the United States is consumed by home appliances. If appliances that are twice as energy- efficient as those currently available are produced， this figure will eventually be reduced to about ten percent.The argument above requires which of the following assumptions？ （A） Home-appliance usage would not increase along with the energy efficiency of the appliances.
（B） It would not be expensive to produce home appliances that are energyefficient.
（C） Home-appliance manufacturers now have the technology to produce appliances that are twice as energy-efficient as those currently available.
（D） The cost of energy to the consumer world rise with increases in the energy efficiency of home appliances.
（E） The percentage of energy consumed by home appliances will increase if existing appliances are not replaced by more energy-efficient models.
17. Inspection system X and inspection system Y， though based on different principles， each detect all product flaws but they each also erroneously reject three percent of flawless products.Since false rejections are very costly， money will by saved by installing both systems， instead of either one or the other， and rejecting only products found flawed by both.
（A） The three percent of flawless products that system X rejects are not all the same products， piece for piece， that system Y erroneously rejects.
（B） It is less costly to accept a flawed product than to rejects a flawless one.
（C） In their price range. System X and Y are the least error-prone inspection systems on the market.
（D）Whichever system performs the second inspection needs to inspect only products not rejected by the first system.
（E） Any way of detecting flaw， other than by using either system X or systemy， requires complete disassembly of the products.
18. Statistics over four consecutive years showed that four percent more automobile accidents happened in California during the week following the switch to daylight saving time and during the week following the switch back to standard time than occurred the week before each event. These statistics show that these time changes adversely affect the alertness of California divers.
The conclusion in the argument above is based on which of the following assumptions？
（A） Drivers in California as well as those in the rest of the United States have similar driving patterns.
（B） The observed increases in accident rates are due almost entirely to an increase in the number of minor accidents.
（C） Four years is not a sufficiently long period of time over which to judge the phenomenon described.
（D） There are no other factors such as school vacations or holiday celebration that cause accident rates to rise during these weeks.
（E） A time change at any other time of years would not produce a similar increase in accident rates.
19. Although the ratio of physicians to total population is about the same in the United States and Canada， the United States has 33 percent more surgeons per capita. Clearly， this is the reason people in the United States undergo 40 percent more operations per capita than do Canadians.
The explanation given above rests on an assumption that
（A） patients in the United States do not have a greater need for surgery than do patients in Canada
（B） the population of the United States is not larger than that of Canada
（C） United States patients sometimes travel to Canada for certain kinds of surgery
（D） General practitioners in the United States do not as a rule examine a who is a candidate for surgery before sending the patient to a surgeon.
（E） There are no unnecessary surgical operations performed in Canada.